The theory is both relatively simple and elegant, but also maddeningly counterintuitive. There is no need to go into all the details of this theory here, but there is a central feature of Einstein’s work that would eventually lead him to completely revise Newton’s theory of gravity, changing our understanding of the structure of gravity. .

And this feature is exactly what it says: relativity. Einstein discovered that what we once thought was constant was not so at all. However, to understand how Einstein rewrote Newton’s ideas, we first need to go back a little and understand Newton’s ideas.

When Newton came up with the idea of gravity, a force that emanates from and connects to all objects, he needed the universe to make this force universal. These planets need to know where they are relative to the Sun as the Sun reaches out its gravitational hand and teaches all the planets, even mighty Jupiter, where to go next. When I pluck an apple from a tree and let it fall, it needs to know how far away the apple is from the Earth in order for it to have the correct rate of acceleration.

In order for gravity to act with the appropriate force, everything in the universe must know where everything else is. Thus Newton envisioned the universe as a large, fixed grid, a set of universal rules, a master clock, and an absolute frame of reference against which all other measures could be taken. (I should point out that this should not be taken literally. There is no giant clock floating in the vacuum of space telling absolute time, and there is no actual grid on which the rulers in question crisscross space. These are all mathematical basis mechanisms for calculating gravitational forces, but the need for that basis It is very important in Newton’s work.)

So, according to Newton’s view of gravity, every gravitational interaction must be calculated relative to this universal, fixed absolute reference frame. In order for gravity to have the right force at the right time and in the right place, beings in our universe must know where they are relative to this fixed coordinate system.

However, James Clerk Maxwell’s work on electromagnetism contradicted this universal frame of reference (although Maxwell was not aware of this at the time). Maxwell’s brilliant mathematics said that the speed of light would always and forever remain the speed of light. It didn’t matter how fast you moved or which direction you moved, whether the light was coming towards you or moving away. Light was traveling at the speed of light.

If there were a universal frame of reference, a master clock and an absolute ruler, as Newton suggested, then the speed of light would have to be relative only to the speed in that frame of reference, since this absolute frame of reference is the standard by which all motions can be measured. Therefore, the existence of this absolute frame should allow you to hover over a beam of light and see it as fixed and frozen.

In this titanic battle of the combinatorial giants, who should win, Maxwell or Newton? Is there a fixed frame of reference from which we can evaluate all movements in the universe, or are some things, such as the speed of light, unchanging, constant and independent of our perspective?

Einstein chose Maxwell, and Einstein was right. There is no universal reference system, master clock or absolute ruler. It is impossible to judge motion outside of each observer’s relative vantage points. In other words, that’s what relativity is in the theory of relativity: any relative motion. If Einstein was passing me on his bike, all I could tell was that he was moving. According to him, he could rightly claim that he was at rest and I was in motion.

Einstein was rewarded for his efforts by abandoning absolute concepts of time and space. Not everything is relative; There are some constants in the universe. That is, the laws of physics. All observers, great and all, slow and fast, directed and aimless, all agree that the laws of physics are common. Maxwell’s equation can be given as an example. They say the speed of light is constant. End. This is the case: every observer in the universe will always see the speed of light as the same, regardless of its position, speed or acceleration. Source

Source: Port Altele