According to the content of the book, all this led to the failure and failure of these attempts. But in presenting these facts, based on “documents made public in the Reagan and Carter presidential libraries, the US National Archives, the archives of Menachem Begin and the State Archives of Israel, as well as using the archives of the Institute of Palestine Studies” (from the preface to Rashid Khalidi), the author takes away from the mind the essence of the conflict and the main reasons for the failure of all these attempts, represented in the aggressiveness of the colonialist, racist, mang -seizing and occupying the Zionist project, the crimes and ethnic cleansing that accompanied its implementation against the Palestinian people, as well as the full support of America and the West and the corresponding failure of any Palestinian negotiator to deny Palestine freed from in this conquest, no matter how high the level of treason in his blood, or the security coordination mechanisms in se Israel’s rule of conquest had reached the limit of their subjugation. When Jimmy Carter, elected president in 1976, presented his vision for a solution to the problem of Palestinian self-determination, he did not differ from American presidents, predecessors and successors, in his commitment to the survival of Israel. and its security protection. , “because this is not only a political issue, but also a moral imperative,” as Carter, an evangelical Baptist to whom he belongs, emphasized in highly religious language. But when he approached the issue in terms of normalization and land exchange on the 1967 borders, the arrival of Menachem Begin in 1977 at the head of the government reversed Carter’s plans and vision, and the role of the Zionist lobby in America no less. He mobilized his forces to overthrow Carter and bring Ronald Reagan to the presidency of the United States in 1980, surrounded by a group of radical neoconservatives. In addition, Yasser Arafat’s secret communications with American officials and his first declaration of “acceptance of a Palestinian state” in March 1977 instead of “total liberation” (as well as his subsequent that concession to amend the Charter of the Organization” and the “Oslo agreements”) ). President Anwar Sadat surprised everyone with his visit to Jerusalem and the subsequent signing of the Camp David Accords. These agreements, which Anziska observes, are beginning to undermine some features of the creation of a Palestinian state?!
Since the promises do not match the reality, the policy of Israel and Washington has only changed in the direction of the increase of crimes against the Palestinian people: “The eighties saw the growth of the influence of the neoconservatives in the policy of the US in the Middle East, and Israel. was presented as a strategic ally. and the Palestine Liberation Organization. As a Soviet tool in preparing the conditions for a bloody military intervention in Lebanon” (p. 198). In this aspect, the author mentions the facts of Sharon’s plan, who was Secretary of Defense in 1982, “as well as the American green light given by Foreign Secretary Alexander Haig to Sharon during their meeting in Washington to attack the Lebanon, telling him: I hope you are aware of the need for provocation to gain understanding at the international level, and we want Syria outside of Lebanon more than you” (p. 246). It was the shooting of the Israeli ambassador in London and the subsequent Israeli invasion of Lebanon. It reminds us of the American green light reaching Israel in its invasion against the resistance in Lebanon in 2006 to achieve some success against the resistance, but it failed (the novel about the American rollover by Olmert in that period is included in the memoir of Condoleezza Rice – ” The House of the Arabic Book” ), with a note that the former secretary general of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Dhafer al-Hassan mentioned in his memoirs when he was the Lebanese ambassador in Saudi Arabia, Austrian Chancellor Bruno Kreisky told the President. Hafez al-Assad in 1981 about Sharon’s plan to invade Lebanon and that Assad went to Riyadh and informed King Fahd, so the latter summoned Arafat and informed him of the invasion plan.
As stated in the Anziska book documents, Sharon was determined to attack and exterminate the Palestinians and drive them out of Lebanon, and then confirmed this before Philip Habib and Maurice Draper during the invasion and during the execution of the massacre in Sabra and Shatila. as he denounced Draper, saying, “If you don’t want the Lebanese to kill them, we will rise.” Killing them” (p. 267). The order prompted Draper to back down, agreeing to a 48-hour delay, coinciding with the start of the Rosh Hashanah holiday that night. American diplomats provided cover for Israel when Phalanx fighters remained in the two camps, “killing civilians until the next morning” (pp. 267-268), in addition to the fact that “the question of the Palestinians for the first time at the end of a secret meeting with Bashir Gemayel and Lebanese intelligence chief Johnny.” Abdo and senior Israeli and Lebanese officials at Sharon’s ranch in the Negev on the night of July 31” (p. 272). ).
Perhaps, in the opinion of the reader of the book, and from the point of view of his knowledge, he may not find more information than what is distributed, or about the underlying causes of the road closure, because the reason still exists and lies in the Zionist project, and the bias of the American administrations in its absolute Republican and Democratic parties for the defense of Israel and its safety, and with them the West as a whole, the official confusion of Arabs and its fragmentation, the withdrawal of part of his countries from this conflict in peace agreements with Israel, and a new acceleration in the normalization of other countries with enemy formation, in a situation Palestinian similar to the Arab situation, except for the resistance that began with the change in the rules of the scene, and in the delimitation of the future / nakamam liver scenes.